Attacks on Linking Revisited – A New Look at Bion’s Classic Work

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Edited by Catalina Bronstein and Edna O’Shaughnessy 

Karnac Books – 2017 

p. XXV (Introduction)   “ICogitations (1992), Bion differentiated experiences that appear to be transformed by alpha function from those that cannot be transformed.  In order for a  sense impression to be transformed by alpha function, the impression must stay for some length of time (it has to acquire some durability) and must be ideogrammaticised.  Bion gave the example that if the experience is of pain, the psyche must have some visual image of “rubbing an elbow, or tearful face”. He added,

If the reality principle is dominant, then the object of the ideogram will be to make the experience suitable for storage and recall; if the pleasure-pain principle is dominant, the tendency will be to have as the object of the ideogram its value as an excretable object.  (1992, p.64)  Bion W.R. (1992) Cogitations. London:  Karnac.”

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Projective Identification and Psychotherapeutic Technique – Thomas H. Ogden, Karnac Books 1992

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p.  1  “Projective identification is not a metapsychological concept.  The phenomena it describes exist in the realm of thoughts, feelings, and behaviour, not in the realm of abstract beliefs about the workings of the mind.  Whether or not one uses the term or is cognizant of the concept of projective identification, clinically one continually bumps up against the phenomena to which it refers – unconscious projective fantasies, in association with the evocation of congruent feelings in others.  Resistance on the part of therapists and analysts to thinking about these phenomena is understandable:  it is unsettling to imagine experiencing feelings and thinking thoughts that are in an important sense not entirely one’s own.  And yet, the lack of a vocabulary with which to think about this class of phenomena seriously interferes with the therapist’s capacity to understand, manage, and interpret the transference.  Projective identification is a concept that addresses the way in which feeling-states corresponding to the unconscious fantasies of one person (the projector) are engendered in and processed by another person (the recipient),  that is, the way in which one person makes use of another person to experience and contain an aspect of himself.  The projector has the primarily unconscious fantasy of getting rid of an unwanted or endangered part of himself (including internal objects) and of deposing that part in another person in a powerfully controlling way.  The projected part of the self is felt to be partially lost and to be inhabiting the other person.  In association with this unconscious projective fantasy there is an interpersonal interaction by means of which the recipient is pressured to think, feel, and behave in a manner congruent with the ejected feelings and the self- and object-representations embodied in the projective fantasy.  In other words, the recipient is pressured to engage in an identification with a specific, disowned aspect of the projector.

The recipient may be able to live with such induced feelings and manage them within the context of his own larger personality system, for example, by mastery through understanding or integration with more reality-based self-representations.  In such a case, the projector many constructively reinternalize by introjection and identification aspects of the recipient’s handling of the induced feelings.  On the other hand, the recipient may be unable to live with the induced feelings and may handle such feelings by means of denial, projection, omnipotent idealization, further projective identification, or actions aimed at tension relief, such as violence, sexual activity, or distancing behaviour.  In these cases the projector would be confirmed in his/her belief that his/her feelings and fantasies were indeed dangerous and unbearable.  Through identification with the recipient’s pathological handling of the feelings involved, the original pathology of the projector would be further consolidated or expanded.

The concept of projective identification by no means constitutes an entire theory of therapy, nor does it involve a departure from the main body of psychoanalytic theory and technique.  It does go significantly beyond what is ordinarily referred to as transference, wherein the patient distorts his view of the therapist while directing toward the therapist the same feelings that he held toward an earlier person in his life (Freud 1912, 1914, 1915).  In projective identification, not only does the patient view the therapist in a distorted way that is determined by the patient’s past object relations; in addition, pressure is exerted on the therapist to experience himself in a way that is congruent with the patient’s unconsious fantasy.”

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The Figure of Beatrice – Charles Williams, 1943

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apocryphile press, 2005  p. 15

“The image of the woman was not new in him, nor even the mode in which he treated it. What was new was the intensity of his treatment and the extreme to which he carried it. In his master’s great poem – in Virgil’s Aeneid – the image of the woman and the image of the city had both existed, but opposed.  Dido had been the enemy of Rome, and morality had carried the hero away from Dido to Rome.  But in Dante they are reconciled; the appearance of Virgil at the opening of the Commedia has about it this emphasis also.  Virgil could not enter the paradise of that union, for his poem had refused it.  But after Virgil the intellect had had visions which it communicated to the heart, if indeed they are so far separate.  Since Dante the corrupt following of his way has spoiled the repute of the vision.  But the vision has remained.  People still fall in love, and fall in love as Dante did.  It is not unusual to find them doing so.”

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The Human Condition – Hannah Arendt, 1958

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The University of Chicago Press

p. 50 “Indeed, the most intense feeling we know of, intense to the point of blotting out all other experiences, namely, the experience of great bodily pain, is at the same time the most private and least communicable of all.  Not only is it perhaps the only experience which we are unable to transform into a shape fit for public appearance, it actually deprives us of our feeling for reality to such an extent that we can forget it more quickly and easily than anything else.  There seems to be no bridge from the most radical subjectivity, in which I am no longer “recognizable,”  to the outer world of life.  Pain, in other words, truly a borderline experience between life as “being among men ” (inter homines esse) and death, is so subjective and removed from the world of things and men that it cannot assume an appearance at all.

Since our feeling for reality depends utterly upon appearance and therefore upon the existence of a public realm into which things can appear out of the darkness of sheltered existence, even the twilight which illuminates our private and intimate lives is ultimately  derived from the harsher light of the public realm.  Yet there are a great many things which cannot withstand the implacable, bright light of the constant presence of others on the public scene; there, only what is considered to be relevant, worthy of being seen or heard, can be tolerated, so that the irrelevant becomes automatically a private matter.  This, to be sure, does not mean that private concerns are generally irrelevant; on the contrary, we shall see that there are very relevant matters which can survive only in the realm of the private.  For instance, love, in distinction from friendship, is killed, or rather extinguished, the moment it is displayed in public.  (“Never seek to tell thy love / Love that never told can be.”) Because of its inherent wordlessness, love can only become false and perverted when it is used for political purposes such as the change of salvation of the world.”

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Losing and Fusing, Borderline Transitional Object and Self Relations – Roger Lewin, M.D. and Clarence Schulz, M.D., 1992

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Jason Aronson Press

p. 10-13   “The Doctor – Patient relationship is the central integrative feature in an ongoing broadly conceived treatment of a borderline patient.  Everything else depends on it…. What do we mean when we talk of the doctor – patient relationship? … A relationship is not a thing.  Rather, it is a process of a high order of complexity, with many different aspects high-lighted differently at different times.  It changes.  It rearranges.  It can appear strikingly different at different times.  … When we talk of the doctor-patient relationship, we are talking of the “back and forth” between the doctor and the patient, which takes place along a variety of channels.  This “back and forth” has to do with words, looks, postural sets, and a whole series of cues that are interpreted, misinterpreted, and elaborated into fantasies, ideas, and actions by both parties.  It is visceral. …  It is the “back and forth” itself that is of the most fundamental importance and that serves to protect the flexibility and vitality of the treatment. … Relationship means repetitive meetings, separations, reunions.  It means repetitive risks, and hopes, repetitive disillusionments and despairs, repetititve repairs and doubts, but, above all, repetitions.  We intend the term repetition in the original etymological sense of trying over and over again.”

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Marital Tensions – Henry V. Dicks, 1967

 

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Karnac Books   p. 332   “… Is not the current demand for sexual autonomy and equality an attempt, a crude beginning of the fusion between the good and the sexual woman, and an essay in the greater tolerance of ambivalence and ‘ugliness’ than the receding world of double standards knew?  And are not our deprecated young non-heroes turning on the man-of-iron values that produced totalitarianisms, those monstrosities of male savagery, debunking them with jazz, ridicule and still rather shocking assertion of the primacy of Eros over Mars.

     To the pious guardians of the medieval order also the resurrection of the pagan world and its sensual beauty was no renaissance … but the dissolution of all values and restraints.  One of its effects was the full-scale collective paranoia of the witch-hunts to counter the threat of women’s power to control men’s libido.  The battle has fluctuated since then roughly in centuries of libidinal and anti-libidinal prominence, at least in England, but the musty odour of St. Paul and St. Augustine of Hippo has lessened progressively as we have shed the constricting carapace of the medieval world view and let in the fresher air of natural science — even on the mysterious ways in which mankind is always trying to heal the inexorable division into two that need to unite to create new life.  Eros, for all his tricks and disreputable goings on, is at least the God of Love.”

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‘The Contributions of Franz Alexander’ in Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy – Habib Davanloo (1980)

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Samuel Eisenstein, Jason Aronson Inc. Press.,  

p. 29   “Alexander outlined the experiences involving the patient in brief psychotherapy – the intellectual awareness of how his behaviour is inappropriate and belongs to his past, as well as the emotional recognition that feelings are being experienced in therapy.  Here Alexander introduced a well-known principle of technique, one he felt applied to any form of psychotherapy:  namely the corrective emotional experience.  Without that, he felt, there is no psychotherapy to speak of.  Very briefly stated, he felt that the difference between the old childhood relationship with the parents and the present relationship between patient and therapist is the central therapeutic element in therapy.  The therapist’s reaction to the patient’s feelings in therapy is completely different from the reaction of the parents during the patient’s childhood.  He felt that the difference between these attitudes was the cornerstone of the changes that take place in psychotherapy or, for that matter, in psychoanalysis.  This difference allows the patient to understand the source of his conflicts.  What is more important, the patient becomes aware of the inappropriateness of his emotional experiences.  The ego of the patient is afforded a second chance, so to speak; it is helped to adapt to changed situations and to adjust to new and entirely different reality conditions.”

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